17 Jun

Ramona’s House / rza arquitectes

first_img Spain Year:  Houses 2009 CopyHouses•Girona, Spain Ramona’s House / rza arquitectes Save this picture!Courtesy of rza architectes+ 15 Share CopyAbout this officerza arquitectesOfficeFollowProductsWoodConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesGironaResidentialHousesSpainPublished on May 23, 2011Cite: “Ramona’s House / rza arquitectes” 23 May 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodPanel Façade SystemCompositesMitrexPhotovoltaic Solar Cladding – BIPV CladdingMetal PanelsAurubisMill Finished Copper: Nordic StandardDoorsRaynorThermal Sectional Doors – FlexFamily™SinksBradley Corporation USASinks with WashBar Technology – Verge LVQ SeriesExterior DeckingLunawoodThermowood DeckingStonesCosentinoNon-slip Treatment – Dekton® Grip +Metal PanelsSherwin-Williams Coil CoatingsValflon® Coating in Edmonton Public LibraryWallcovering / CladdingLinvisibileLinvisibile Boiserie and Skirting Systems | OrizzonteMineral / Organic PaintsKEIMMineral Paint in Beethoven HausWall / Ceiling LightsEureka LightingCeiling Recessed Lights – OutlineFurnitureFrapontWood Furniture and EquipmentMore products »Read commentsSave世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream “COPY” Projectscenter_img ArchDaily Architects: rza arquitectes Area Area of this architecture project Area:  90 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Ramona’s House / rza arquitectesSave this projectSaveRamona’s House / rza arquitectes ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/136668/ramonas-house-rza-arquitectes Clipboard “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/136668/ramonas-house-rza-arquitectes Clipboard Text description provided by the architects. Since the main idea was to build a low cost house in a short time, the house was built with a industrialized system. Building with prefabricated systems offers different advantages: high quality, durability and fast construction. This house is created like a prototype which could be modified according to the starting conditions. Save this picture!Courtesy of rza architectesRecommended ProductsWindowsFAKRORoof Windows – FPP-V preSelect MAXWindowsLibartVertical Retracting Doors & WindowsWindowspanoramah!®ah!38 – FlexibilityWindowsOTTOSTUMM | MOGSWindow Systems – BronzoFinestra B40The aesthetic appearance of the house shows the use of prefabricated construction elements consequently, columns and beams of precast concrete are exposed on the outside and inside the house. The austerity of the exterior contrasts with the warmth of the interior. We proposed a white palette for more neutral walls and wood textures for doors and furniture to bring more warmth to the interior architecture. Save this picture!Courtesy of rza architectesThe house is composed of two identical volumes opened to the inside garden and closed to the neighbour’s views. The first volume is the day area, which is a flexible space with the kitchen opened to the living room. The other volume is the night area, which is made up of two rooms and the bathroom. The two volumes are linked by the library. This connecting space also has sostenible functions; in winter it capture the sun’s heat and warm the house as well as in summer it provides natural ventilation and refresh. Save this picture!Floor PlanThe house expresses the material implementation, a system that contains all the essence of architecture: space, order and form.Project gallerySee allShow lessBodega Bauer Winery / Field ArchitectureArticlesHavenstraat Dwelling Scheme / Allard ArchitectureArticles Sharelast_img read more

17 Jun

Stepped House / Seijo Peon Arquitectos

first_imgArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/321144/stepped-house-seijo-peon-arquitectos Clipboard Stepped House / Seijo Peon Arquitectos Architects: Seijo Peon Arquitectos Area Area of this architecture project Mexico Stepped House / Seijo Peon ArquitectosSave this projectSaveStepped House / Seijo Peon ArquitectosSave this picture!© Alberto Cáceres ZentenoHouses•Uaymitún, Mexico Projects “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/321144/stepped-house-seijo-peon-arquitectos Clipboard CopySave this picture!© Alberto Cáceres ZentenoText description provided by the architects. On a piece of land located in Uaymitun at the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, with 12.5 meters of seafront, we were asked to design a summer house that would accommodate a three-generation family: one house for the owners and their children; and a small apartment for the owner´s parents. The initial challenge on designing the house was to accomplish that all the bedrooms and social areas had an ocean view, in spite of the reduced front to do so.Save this picture!© Alberto Cáceres ZentenoOne of the requirements posed was to achieve the independent function between the main house and the grandparent´s apartment, keeping a sense of unity but providing privacy and autonomy for both. The partial independence of the grandparent´s apartment and its convenient location on the ground floor, gave rise to a longitudinal division of the house’s program in the ground floor.Both are arranged so they have independent access, as well as full frontal views towards the sea. A difference on floor levels is generated between both parts to give them privacy, still forming part of the same volume.Save this picture!© Alberto Cáceres ZentenoA group of overlapping roofs and volumes (as conceptual big scaled “steps”) presents a succession of thresholds when entering the house from the garage zone. with the ocean as focal point at any given moment. On the ground floor, the social areas – access, living room, dining room, and terrace – form the central part of the floor plan, succeeding each other in a linear fashion, with an ocean view as focal point at the end of the line. In the north-west corner the kitchen is laid in the same linear axis and opens toward the terrace, with the service areas in the back side.Save this picture!© Alberto Cáceres ZentenoOn the first level up the stairs lay three identical rooms for the children. Much attention was given to providing equal circumstances and the same visual relationship with the context for each of these bedrooms. To achieve cross ventilation the roofs are stepped and overlapped vertically, generating ventilation gaps between them.Save this picture!© Alberto Cáceres ZentenoThe master bedroom is separated from the main body of the house by an upward movement of the volume, which allows the secondary bedrooms their ocean view. Additionally, this arrangement allows for cross ventilation in both the master bedroom and the social areas below. Formally it’s presented as a floating element over the terraces –the most used social space- giving them diversity of scales and making this area a great spatial articulator for the private and public areas of the house. Save this picture!First Floor PlanProject gallerySee allShow lessMosque (Amir Al-Momenin) Proposal / CAAT StudioArticlesNotre Dame de l’Assomption – National Cathedral Competition Entry / YCF GroupArticles Sharecenter_img “COPY” Area:  487 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Photographs Photographs:  Alberto Cáceres Zenteno+ 27 Share 2007 Year:  Houses CopyAbout this officeSeijo Peon ArquitectosOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesUaymitúnMexicoPublished on February 02, 2013Cite: “Stepped House / Seijo Peon Arquitectos” [Casa Escalonada / Seijo Peon Arquitectos] 02 Feb 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPartitionsSkyfoldChoosing the Skyfold Wall for Your SpaceVinyl Walls3MVinyl Finish – DI-NOC™ SandShowerhansgroheShowers – Raindance SelectWoodEGGERTimberSignage / Display SystemsGoppionDisplay Case – Bre-ClassMetallicsTrimoMetal Panels for Roofs – Trimoterm SNVLightsLouis PoulsenOutdoor Lighting – Flindt PlazaStonesMikado QuartzQuartz Slab – MarbleWoodStructureCraftEngineering – Long-Span StructuresWoodBlumer LehmannAssembly and Logistics of Wood ProjectsHandlesKarcher DesignDoor Handle Madeira ER45Chairs / Benches / CouchesArperModular Sofa – LoopMore products »Save想阅读文章的中文版本吗?阶梯式住宅 / Seijo Peon Arquitectos是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my streamlast_img read more

16 Jun

OSCR names top 300 Scottish charities by income

first_img  242 total views,  6 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis1 AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis1 OSCR names top 300 Scottish charities by income Howard Lake | 28 February 2008 | News The Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator (OSCR) has published a list of the top 300 Scottish charities ranked by annual incomes. It will update ths list, based on information in the Scottish Charity Register, on a quarterly basis.The top 20 charities have a combined income of more than £4 billion, representing 38% cent of the sector’s total income of £10.9billion.Together the top 300 charities account for £9.5 billion or 87% of the sector’s total income.‘Cross-border’ charities that are registered as charities in England and Wales as well are included on the list. Their income figures cover the whole of the UK rather than just Scotland. Removing their 37% of gross annual income, the remainder of Scotland-only charities account for a total income of £5,507,599,831.The top 10 charities in the list are:1. British Council*: £517,493,4112. University of Edinburgh: £438,852,0003. The Open University*: £352,700,0004. University of Glasgow Court: £312,372,0005. Glasgow Housing Association [Registered Social Landlord (RSL)]: £296,701,0006. Oxfam*: £293,100,0007. The British Red Cross Society*: £233,100,0008. NCH*: £219,456,0009. University of Strathclyde: £193,374,00010. University of Dundee: £165,039,000* = Charity registered in Scotland that is also an organisation registered as a charity in England and Wales (a ‘cross-border’ charity).www.oscr.org.uk About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Tagged with: Giving/Philanthropy Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator Research / statisticslast_img read more

16 Jun

Legacy Fundraising Basics

first_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Legacy Fundraising Basics About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.  50 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis How to plan a simple campaign to attract charitable legacies for your charity by legacy expert Simon George of Wootton George.center_img  49 total views,  1 views today Advertisement Tagged with: legacies Howard Lake | 27 August 2009 | Newslast_img read more

12 Jun

Renewed Calls for al-Singace Release as Protest Hits 200 Days

first_img October 7, 2015 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Renewed Calls for al-Singace Release as Protest Hits 200 Days Tenth anniversary of Bahraini blogger’s arrest Receive email alerts Organisation RSF_en News BahrainMiddle East – North Africa News News June 15, 2020 Find out more March 17, 2021 Find out morecenter_img Coronavirus “information heroes” – journalism that saves lives German spyware company FinFisher searched by public prosecutors October 14, 2020 Find out more Follow the news on Bahrain BahrainMiddle East – North Africa Help by sharing this information News to go further 7 October 2015 marks the 200th day of Bahraini prisoner of conscience Dr Abduljalil al-Singace’s protest. Since 21 March, Dr al-Singace has boycotted all solid food in protest of the treatment of inmates at the Central Jau Prison.We, the undersigned NGOs, call for Dr al-Singace’s immediate and unconditional release, and the release of all political prisoners detained in Bahrain. We voice our solidarity with Dr al-Singace’s continued protest and call on the United Kingdom and all European Union member states, the United States and the United Nations to raise his case, and the cases of all prisoners of conscience, with Bahrain, both publicly and privately.Dr al-Singace is a former Professor of Engineering at the University of Bahrain, an academic and a blogger. He is a 2007 Draper Hills Fellow at Stanford University’s Center on Democracy Development, and the Rule of Law. He has long campaigned for an end to torture and political reform, writing on these and other subjects on his blog, Al-Faseela. Bahraini Internet Service Providers continue to ban access to the blog and Dr al-Singace has suffered arbitrary detention and torture on multiple occasions. In June 2011, a military court sentenced Dr al-Singace to life imprisonment alongside other prominent protest leaders, collectively known as the ‘Bahrain 13’. He is considered a prisoner of conscience.Dr al-Singace’s current protest began in response to the violent response of the Ministry of Interior to a riot that took place in the Central Jau Prison on 10 March 2015. Though only a minority of inmates participated in the riot, police collectively punished all detainees, subjecting them to beatings and other humiliating and degrading acts; depriving them of sleep and food; and denying them access to sanitation facilities. Dr al-Singace objects to the humiliating treatment and arbitrary detention to which prison authorities subject him and other prisoners of conscience. Additionally, Dr al-Singace rejects being labelled a criminal, as the government convicted him in 2011 on grounds relating to his peaceful exercise of his freedoms of speech and assembly.Since Dr al-Singace began his protest, the international community has expressed concerns over the treatment of inmates at Bahrain’s largest prison complex and the condition of Dr al-Singace in particular. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights raised the issue of torture in Bahrain’s prisons in June. In July, the European Parliament passed a resolution on Bahrain calling for the unconditional release of prisoners of conscience, naming Dr al-Singace. The United States clarified its concerns regarding Dr al-Singace in August. The United Kingdom has also expressed its concerns over Bahrain.In June 2015, NGOs launched a social media campaign for Dr al-Singace – #singacehungerstrike – alongside the University College Union. Since then, NGOs also organised protests outside the Bahrain Embassy, London, and the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. On 27 August, the 160th day of Dr al-Singace’s protest, 41 NGOs issued an urgent appeal for the release of Dr al-Singace.For over six months, Dr al-Singace has subsisted on water, fluids and IV injections for sustenance. He is currently interred at the prison clinic. Prison authorities seem to have finally begun to take notice of the international attention his case is attracting, as Dr al-Singace recently received treatment for a nose injury he suffered during his torture in 2011. He had waited over four years to receive such treatment. He also suffered damage to his ear as a result of torture, but has not received adequate medical attention for this injury.According to Dr al-Singace’s family, the prison authorities will only transfer him to a civilian hospital for treatment if he agrees to wear a prisoner’s uniform, which he refuses to do on the grounds that he is a prisoner of conscience and not a criminal. Since the beginning of his protest, Dr al-Singace has lost 20 kilograms in weight. He is often dizzy and his hair is falling out. He survives on nutritional drinks, oral rehydration salts, glucose, water and an IV drip, and his family states that he is “on the verge of collapse.”In the prison clinic, Dr al-Singace is not allowed to leave the building and is effectively held in solitary confinement. Though the clinic staff tends to him, he is not allowed to interact with other prison inmates and his visitation times are irregular. Authorities have now lifted an unofficial ban on Dr al-Singace receiving writing and reading materials, but access is still limited: prison staff have now given him a pen, but have still not allowed him access to any paper. The government has also denied Dr al-Singace permission to receive magazines sent to him in an English PEN-led campaign, despite promising to allow him to do so. He has no ready access to television, radio or print media.We demand Dr Abduljalil al-Singace’s immediate release, and urge the international community to raise his case with Bahrain.Signatories:Americans for Democracy & Human Rights in Bahrain (ADHRB)ARTICLE 19Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR)Bahrain Institute of Rights and Democracy (BIRD)Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE)Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)English PenEuropean – Bahraini Organisation for Human Rights (EBOHR)Gulf Centre for Human Rights (GCHR)Index on CensorshipInternational Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)Lawyer’s Rights Watch Canada (LRWC)No Peace Without Justice (NPWJ)PEN CanadaPEN InternationalReporters Without Borders (RSF)Scholars at Risk Network (SAR)Sentinel Human Rights DefendersThe Arabic Network for Human Rights Information (ANHRI)The European Centre for Democracy and Human Rights (ECDHR)The Nonviolent Radical Party Transnational and Transparty (NRPTT)For more and background information, read the previous statement here. last_img read more

31 May

Treasury Issues First Guidance on Termination of Making Home Affordable Program

first_img Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Home / Daily Dose / Treasury Issues First Guidance on Termination of Making Home Affordable Program Related Articles Subscribe Brian Honea’s writing and editing career spans nearly two decades across many forms of media. He served as sports editor for two suburban newspaper chains in the DFW area and has freelanced for such publications as the Yahoo! Contributor Network, Dallas Home Improvement magazine, and the Dallas Morning News. He has written four non-fiction sports books, the latest of which, The Life of Coach Chuck Curtis, was published by the TCU Press in December 2014. A lifelong Texan, Brian received his master’s degree from Amberton University in Garland. The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Previous: They’ve Come a Long Way: FHFA Details Progress of Non-Performing Loan Sales Next: Wage Growth Lags Amid Positives in February Employment Summary Tagged with: avoiding foreclosure Making Home Affordable Treasury Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Treasury Issues First Guidance on Termination of Making Home Affordable Program Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Share Save Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago The government’s Making Home Affordable (MHA) program was launched by the Obama Administration in February 2009 as a way to stabilize the housing market and help struggling homeowners avoid foreclosure.Now, more than seven years after the crisis hit, with the economy having significantly improved from 2008 and many housing fundamentals having returned to their pre-crisis levels, the government is turning its attention toward winding down the MHA program, which is scheduled to end on December 31, 2016. The Department of Treasury on Thursday issued its first set of guidelines to servicers for MHA program termination in the form of Supplemental Directive (SD) 16-02.Included in the SD are guidelines for servicers on such topics as policies and procedures to accommodate deadlines; evidence of borrower transmissions and servicer transmissions; the Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP), Home Affordable Foreclosure Alternatives (HAFA), the Unemployment Program (UP), Second Lien Modification Program (2LMP ), and Treasury FHA-HAMP and RD (Rural Development) HAMP.The SD also provides guidance as to the eligibility of certain GSE HAMP loans to receive pay-for-performance incentives through the government’s Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).Servicers must either establish or update their policies and procedures to ensure that all relevant documents and information are processed in accordance with the requirements of version 5.0 of the Making Home Affordable Program Handbook for Servicers of Non-GSE Mortgages (Handbook), issued by Treasury on January 6, 2016. The policies and procedures should be designed to reasonably ensure that trial period plans, extinguishment, short sales and deeds-in-lieu of foreclosure can be converted into a permanent modification by December 1, 2007.Servicers should design such policies and procedures to reasonably ensure that trial period plans, extinguishments, short sales and deeds-in-lieu (DIL) of foreclosure under MHA can be converted to a permanent modification, effected or closed, as applicable, by December 1, 2017. Click here to view a complete list of the updated requirements and a description of each one.Click here to view the entire Supplemental Directive issued by Treasury on Thursday.  Print This Post March 3, 2016 3,731 Views Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago in Daily Dose, Featured, Government, News The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago About Author: Brian Honea Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago avoiding foreclosure Making Home Affordable Treasury 2016-03-03 Brian Honea Sign up for DS News Daily last_img read more

27 May

Durkan calls for action to create jobs west of the Bann

first_img Foyle MP Mark Durkan is calling for more to be done to create jobs West of the Bann.It was announced earlier this week that there are now over 15,000 people unemployed in Derry, Limavady and Strabane.And according to the latest figures Derry is still Northern Irelands dole capital.Mr Durkan says more needs to be done to create jobs in the region…………. WhatsApp Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan fire WhatsApp 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Pinterest News Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry Google+ Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal Twittercenter_img Pinterest Facebook Google+ RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR By News Highland – March 22, 2013 Facebook Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Twitter Durkan calls for action to create jobs west of the Bann Previous articleDerry – Coleraine rail line reopens as ‘Into The West’ seek extension into DonegalNext articleSoccer – Finn Harps v Longford Town Preview News Highland last_img read more

27 May

Derry PSNI appeal for information following assaults in city and Claudy

first_img Facebook Google+ Pinterest WhatsApp 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic Previous articleTaoiseach pays tribute to troops abroad at ChristmasNext articleDonegal set to lose status as one of the three most dangerous counties for road users News Highland By News Highland – December 27, 2011 WhatsApp Derry PSNI appeal for information following assaults in city and Claudy Police in Derry are appealing for information following an assault in the city in the early hours of Christmas morning.The PSNI say that shortly after 12.30 on Sunday morning,  a window of a house in Lapwing Way  was smashed, and a 31 year old man assaulted in the street by 2 unknown men.The man sustained a suspected broken nose and cuts to his head in the incident. He was treated in hospital for the injuries. His attackers are described as being 19-20 years old, approximately 5’9″ tall. One was wearing a black top and blue jeans and the other a white top and blue jeans.Detectives at Strand Road are investigating, and are appealing for information.Meanwhile, two people have been arrested following an altercation in the “Cow Market” area of Claudy in the early hours of yesterday.Three men aged 23, 24 and 40 were injured during the assault, two were hospitalised with injuries, which are not believed to be life threatening. Two men in their 20s were arrested and subsequently released on Police bail pending further enquiries. Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan firecenter_img Pinterest Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal Twitter Facebook Newsx Adverts 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Twitter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Google+last_img read more

26 May

School Of Thought Of “Give Slap, Say Sorry And Forget” Not Endorsed: Gujarat HC Rejects Advocate Yatin Oza’s Unconditional Apology [Read Order]

first_imgNews UpdatesSchool Of Thought Of “Give Slap, Say Sorry And Forget” Not Endorsed: Gujarat HC Rejects Advocate Yatin Oza’s Unconditional Apology [Read Order] Akshita Saxena26 Aug 2020 10:54 PMShare This – x”A clear and loud message is a must to be sent that we are open to every healthy criticism respecting the fundamental right of freedom of expression and at the same time, we are obligated not to permit any attempt to tarnish the image of the Institution and to despise and damage the prestige of the same and to demean the respect it enjoys by one and all.” Following the Full…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?Login”A clear and loud message is a must to be sent that we are open to every healthy criticism respecting the fundamental right of freedom of expression and at the same time, we are obligated not to permit any attempt to tarnish the image of the Institution and to despise and damage the prestige of the same and to demean the respect it enjoys by one and all.” Following the Full Court resolution declining the unqualified apology tendered by Advocate Yatin Oza over his remarks on functioning of the High Court as well as its Registry, a Division Bench of the Gujarat High Court rejected his apology stating that the same “lacks sincerity”. “We are neither satisfied with the genuineness of apology tendered before this court nor convinced of its bona fide nature of such apology and therefore, choose not to accept the same, and to discharge the respondent at this stage of proceedings,” the Division Bench of Justices Sonia Gokani and NV Anjaria said. ‘Remorse Expressed Is A Tool To Escape The Consequences Of His Misconduct’: Gujarat HC Full Court Rejects Yatin Oza’s Unconditional Apology It emphasized, “While so holding we are neither losing sight of the magnanimity expected of the court initiating the proceedings of contempt being an initiator and also an adjudicator before whom contemnor tenders apology. Nor are we acting with unwarranted sensitivity. Nor are we guided by feelings of conceit or positional supremacy, unacceptable in any person trusted by the Constitution with such vital powers of contempt.” The order has come in the suo moto contempt proceedings initiated against Oza for targeting the HC Registry and questioning the very credibility of High Court Administration “on frivolous grounds and unverified facts”. The Court expressed its “dismay” at the manner in which Oza had conducted the Live Session, declaring the Court to have lost trust of all concerned, and that litigants shall not secure justice without means and connections. “We are dismayed at the manner in which the entire meeting was conducted which also gives a glimpse of impunity with which the possibility of notice of contempt and contempt action were also referred to before the media persons, it can be prima facie noticed that this entire sequence of events is bereft of any emotional outburst and contrarily, appears prima facie to be more guided by a definite and purposive object of attacking the Institute,” the Court observed. During a live conference on Facebook last month, attended by various journalists, Oza alleged that the HC registry was following corrupt practises, and that the cases of only the rich and powerful were being listed and heard. Taking strong exception to such “irresponsible, sensational and intemperate” remarks, the HC had taken contempt proceedings against him observing that Oza had, with frivolous grounds and unverified facts, targeted the HC Registry and had questioned the very credibility of High Court Administration. He had challenged the contempt proceedings before the Supreme Court, which refused to interfere in the matter. During the pendency of contempt proceedings, the Full Court of the Gujarat High Court decided to review and recall the decision taken on October 25, 1999 to designate Oza as Senior Advocate. The decision was taken under Rule 26 of the High Court of Gujarat (Designation of Senior Advocates) Rules 2018. Assailing this decision, Oza had moved the Top Court, seeking that the Full Court notification taking away his designation be set aside and Rule 26 of the HC Rules be declared as ultra vires. Before the Supreme Court, Oza offered to make an unconditional apology to the HC for his remarks against it. Taking note of this, the Supreme Court deferred the hearing of his petition challenging the HC decision for two weeks, expressing the hope that the High Court will consider Oza’s representation in the meantime. On August 10, 2020, Oza tendered an unconditional apology before the High Court pursuant to which, the High Court decided to provide him an opportunity of hearing. On consideration of totality of the facts and circumstances however, the Division Bench concluded, “Mere apology may be no answer to an act, utterance or publication of contempt which is grave in nature so as to scandalize the majesty, dignity and authority of the Court. The school of thought of “Give slap, say sorry and forget” was not endorsed to by the Supreme Court in L.D. Jaikwal (supra).” Oza had expressed that he held the Court in highest regard and that his grievance was against the functioning of the registry. Rejecting this submission the Court said, “the registry also cannot be permitted to be used as a pretext to attack on the administration of justice”. The Bench added, “it is the knowledge of even a commoner that dispensation of justice is not the function of registry but of the judges exclusively and when serious announcements are made of doors of justice being closed for all others except only rich and resourceful litigants, irreparable and irreversible damage is prima facie caused. It is to be reminded that the registry carries on the function as an effective part and administrative arm of the justice delivery system.” The Court went on to observe that the present case is not the solitary instance of impunity and that Oza had previously been rapped for contemptuous actions, but was let off after tendering of apology. Recalling the 2016 contempt case against him, which was closed by the Supreme Court after he tendered an unconditional apology, the High Court said, “The repeated acts and conduct of contempt would definitely be one of the guiding factors for the Court to hold that apology tendered is not bona fide and lacks sincerity and therefore, an unacceptable proposition. Every time scurrilous remarks against the Judges and the institution are made and when he realises that there is no escape route, the weapon of unconditional apology comes to his rescue.” Click Here To Download Order Read Order Next Storylast_img read more

26 May

Euthanasia, Doctrine Of Double Effect And The Growing Need For Effective Palliative Care

first_imgColumnsEuthanasia, Doctrine Of Double Effect And The Growing Need For Effective Palliative Care Somya Luthra26 Sep 2020 8:40 AMShare This – xLike most other philosophical doctrines and terms, the word ‘euthanasia’ has been derived from two Greek words, ‘Eu’ meaning ‘well’ and ‘Thanatos’ meaning ‘death’. Thus, in simple terms, euthanasia means good death. It is a process of ending an individual’s life in order to relieve him of any pain or suffering, which he is currently experiencing or is likely to experience in the…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginLike most other philosophical doctrines and terms, the word ‘euthanasia’ has been derived from two Greek words, ‘Eu’ meaning ‘well’ and ‘Thanatos’ meaning ‘death’. Thus, in simple terms, euthanasia means good death. It is a process of ending an individual’s life in order to relieve him of any pain or suffering, which he is currently experiencing or is likely to experience in the future. Different types of euthanasia can be categorised based on the method of ending life and based on consent. The life that is ended by directly providing a lethal injection or a mocktail of drugs to the patient, having the knowledge and intention to kill him, is called active euthanasia. Passive euthanasia occurs when the treatment of keeping the patient alive, is withdrawn, where withdrawal will kill the patient. If the patient has decided to die, on his own for him, then it is called voluntary euthanasia. If someone else has decided on the patients’ behalf, then it is a case of non-voluntary euthanasia. The ‘doctrine of double effect’ is a principle often associated with euthanasia. According to the doctrine, an act is morally justifiable, if the intended good supersedes the harmful foreseen consequences attached to it. It is used in cases, where a patient is suffering from excruciating and uncontrollable pain, and the doctor prescribes him a drug which will help him control it and improve his quality of life, even though it has a side effect of shortening his span of life. For the doctrine to be morally permissible, four conditions have to be met at in all circumstances. First is that the intention, executed in the form of action, should be morally right. Second, the action should be the direct intention and not the adverse effect. Third, the good should overweigh the bad. Fourth, the doctor should give his best to minimise the harmful consequences. The principle of euthanasia is not a twenty-one-century discovery. In Greece and Rome, it was considered morally permissible to assist in someone die to prevent further suffering. In Sparta, an ancient city, new-born children born with significant defects were put to death. It is even morally permissible for the old age to indulge involuntary euthanasia. ‘Freedom to leave’ was a recognised right under Roman laws. With the rise of Christianity, strong opposition against euthanasia began to arise. Renowned Christian scholars Augustine and Aquinas spoke widely against it. They believed that human life is a gift from God and must be preserved at all costs. It is for God to give and take human being; humans cannot make this decision for themselves. Therefore, by choosing our own life, or assisting someone in doing so is going against God. Katherine Young, in her study, explains how voluntary euthanasia for the elderly and children was practised throughout India before its invasion.[1] It was only discouraged in the modern period. In the present day, Hindus have conflicting views on euthanasia. Whereas one sect believes that by assisting someone in taking their miserable life, he’s doing a good deed, the other thinks he is interfering in the God controlled ‘cycle of karma’, even if he is helping in relieving in the pain and suffering. Those belonging to the latter frame of mind, also oppose life-supporting systems. In Hinduism, therefore, the permissibility of euthanasia was limited to religious self-sacrifice and self-willed death.[2] In Sikhs, euthanasia is mostly discouraged. They derive their principles from the Guru Granth Sahib, which describes human life as a God’s plan. Those who engage in voluntary euthanasia not only disturb it but should accept their sufferings as a part of their karma without complaining. Jainism, a relatively new religion, was probably the first to allow voluntary euthanasia. ‘Sallekhana’ or ‘self-willed’ death, is a religiously sanctioned practice and involves fast till end. Although suicide isn’t permitted, those who wish to sacrifice their lives in a battle and die a hero’s death and those want to attain salvation or enlightenment are allowed to do so. Also, in extreme cases involving the elderly and children, self-willed death was recognised. In India as well as abroad, euthanasia has remained a hotly debated topic over the last century. In India, there is a poor quality of end life care due to a plethora of reasons. There is a lack of societal awareness, the grey areas haven’t been adequately explored, and the legal status of euthanasia is still not sufficiently defined.[3] The physicians in India are vulnerable due to this inadequate knowledge and understanding of statutory provisions. Absence of legal guidance acts as important prevention in taking a life-ending decision in India. The right to life and personal freedom is guaranteed under the category of Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22) by the Indian Constitution in Part III. Article 21 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the right to life and personal liberty in accordance with the procedure laid down by law. In the Gopalan case, the court held that personal freedom extends to the individual’s person or body. In 1973, the scope of personal liberty was expanded. The right to informed consent or refusal flows from this and refers to all medical interventions. That alone would be enough to decide to foregoing life-sustaining care (FLST). In P. Rathinam’s case,[4] the laws of suicide were invalidated, as the Supreme Court had allowed the right to die in the face of unbearable misery. This decision of the SC was overturned by the judgment of Gian Kaur[5] in which the court ruled that the fundamental right to life enshrined in Section 21 didn’t take a right to make one’s life in its ambit. The appeal was in question was about suicide and abetment to death (section 306 and 309), and didn’t take in account terminally ill patients kept alive using artificial support. The judges made an exception to the dying patient’s condition allowing for a “dignified death process” in the latter case. According to the IPC, in order to constitute murder under Section 300, intention and knowledge are prerequisites. In order for the act to be classified as murder, the petitioner has to prove that the physician had a motive. In most of the doctor-patient relationship, the sole purpose of the doctors is to treat the patients and provide them they care, of course taking into account certain exceptions, the burden of proof rests with the appellant. In the case of a Foregoing Life Support Treatment (FLST) principle of prior knowledge is irrelevant as it is only used when all other options have been exhausted. Thus, the agency of death is not applicable to withdrawing artificial life support. Thus, the doctor will fall under exception (5) of Section 300 IPC. In India, abetment to suicide, given in Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code and attempt to commit suicide in Section 309 of Indian Penal Code are criminal offences. It is only applicable to the underlying disease condition. It is ‘letting die’ instead of directly killing a person. In the Airdale NHS Trust v. Bland, Lord Keith[6] it was held that “a medical practitioner is under no duty to continue to treat such a patient where a large body of informed and responsible medical opinion is to the effect that no benefit at all would be conferred by a continuance of the treatment.” This is the worldwide accepted position. In the Aruna Ramchandra Shanbaug vs Union of India & Ors[7] case, passive euthanasia was legalised. Life support could be withdrawn from patients in a permanent vegetative state. The Supreme Court laid down guidelines for Passive Euthanasia. The legal provisions surrounding euthanasia suffer from ambiguousness. The Supreme Court has upheld many suicide laws that can be misinterpreting and applied to mercy killing decisions. The law commission of India appears to not take into account the needs of the dying patient and his guardians, in spite of it clarifying many concepts. As per the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Doctrine of Double effect has been defined as “The doctrine (or principle) of double effect is often invoked to explain the permissibility of an action that causes a serious harm, such as the death of a human being, as a side effect of promoting some good end. It is claimed that sometimes it is permissible to cause such a harm as a side effect (or ‘double effect’) of bringing about a good result even though it would not be permissible to cause such a harm as a means to bringing about the same good end.” The four factors associated with the Doctrine of Double effect of euthanasia are: 1. The good outcome must be accomplished freely of the bad one. 2. The action must be corresponding to the cause. 3. The action must be fitting. 4. The patient must be in a terminal condition. In the Doctrine of Double Effect of Euthanasia, the difficulty arises when we seek to differentiate between intentions and foreseen consequences. [8] The intuitive difference between the two can be explained in the following manner; M is our end goal. Then M is our intention. In order to reach M, we bring about N, then N is our intended means. In carrying out this plan, we foresee O as a consequence, even though we didn’t choose the idea to bring about O, i.e. we didn’t intend for O to occur, then O is merely foreseen and intended. As per the proponents of the doctrine, there exists a considerable difference between the intended and the foreseen consequences and that distinction allows us to judge the morality of the action. The absolutist version of the DDE states that foreseeing harm is morally worse than intending it. It is morally worse to intend to kill than foresee killing. [9] There are many loopholes associated with the doctrine. Opponents argue that one has to take responsibility for all speculated consequences of our action. We can’t cherry-pick the ones favourable to us and ignore the unfavourable ones. Hence, all of our actions should be morally permissible. Palliative care is a specialized system and philosophy of care for delivering care to persons with life threatening diseases from the first stage of diagnosis to even after the death of the person i.e. bereavement care to the family. Palliative care improves the quality of life in three areas: the alleviation of physical and mental torment; improvement and reinforcing of the procedure of patient–doctor communication to avoid any logistics failure and coordination of continued care over various medicinal services—clinic, home, and hospitals. What a distressed person wants is to ease his suffering through pain relief, not death. Palliative care is an often-neglected topic in the euthanasia debate. Adequate palliative care has the ability to prevent a person contemplating euthanasia. The intended end of palliative care is to improve the patient’s life significantly till the time he’s alive. Palliative care is the most prevalent in cases of cancer. One of the major reasons behind the rise of demand for euthanasia is the inability of provide sufficient palliative care. Palliative care for all patients is a distant dream in Indian health care sector. Only about 1% of the Indian receive adequate palliative care. India was one of the largest producers of opium, however, after passing of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act in 1985, the production fell down significantly. Hence, providing adequate palliative care can bring down the number of requests for mercy killing. However, Palliative care is of no use to patients already in vegetative state and coma as they do not feel any physical pain or mental distress that palliative care seeks to control. In India, palliative care is not only remotely available, but is expensive too. Not everyone can afford it. Formulation of laws and policies on euthanasia should take into consideration the availability of palliative care in that particular area and time. India is a country with a plethora of religions and cultures; the issue of euthanasia should be viewed from the lens of rationality, rather than morality and religion. Lack of clarity on the legal status of euthanasia in India is one of the most significant barriers in taking life limitation decisions. The physician faces the risk of lawsuits and other factors such as lack of awareness on the issue of euthanasia, compel the doctors to continue costly and burdensome treatments till the very end, while the patient suffers unbearable pain and his quality of life deteriorates. The ‘end-of-life-care’ is one of the poorest in India. A closer look at the constitutional provisions regarding euthanasia and analysing them would help in improving it. Views are personal only.(Somya Luthra, currently in the Vth semester of B.Com. LLB (Hons.) from Institute of Law, Nirma University. E-mail ID- [email protected]) [1] Katherine K Young, “Euthanasia : Traditional Hindu Views and the Contemporary Debate,” in Harold G. Coward et al. (eds.), Hindu Ethics 72 (Delhi : Sri Satguru Publications, 1989). [2] Harold G. Coward, “Introduction” in Harold G Coward et al. (eds.), Hindu Ethics, id. at 5. [3] Balakrishnan S, Mani RK. Constitutional and legal provisions in Indian law for limiting life support. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2005; 9:108–14. [4] Rathinam P. vs Union of India. Supreme Court Cases. 1994; 3:394–430. [5] Gian Kaur vs State of Punjab. AIR, Supreme Court. 1996; 83:1257–65. [6] Airedale NHS Trust v Bland. 1993 [7] Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug vs The Union of India and Ors. WRIT PETITION (CRIMINAL) no. 115 of 2009 (Supreme Court of India Proceedings) 2009 [8] Bratman, M. (1999): Intentions, Plans and Practical Reason, CSLI. Originally published: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987 [9] Fischer, J.M., Ravizza, M. and Copp, D. (1993): Quinn on Double Effect: The Problem of Closeness, Ethics 103, 707-725 Next Storylast_img read more