Background Flatfish metamorphosis denotes the extraordinary transformation of a symmetric pelagic larva into an asymmetric benthic juvenile. Metamorphosis in vertebrates is driven by thyroid hormones (THs), but how they orchestrate the cellular, morphological and functional modifications associated with maturation to juvenile/adult states in flatfish is an enigma. Since THs act via thyroid receptors that are ligand activated transcription factors, we hypothesized that the maturation of tissues during metamorphosis should be preceded by significant modifications in the transcriptome. Targeting the unique metamorphosis of flatfish and taking advantage of the large size of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) larvae, we determined the molecular basis of TH action using RNA sequencing. Results De novo assembly of sequences for larval head, skin and gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) yielded 90,676, 65,530 and 38,426 contigs, respectively. More than 57 % of the assembled sequences were successfully annotated using a multi-step Blast approach. A unique set of biological processes and candidate genes were identified specifically associated with changes in morphology and function of the head, skin and GI-tract. Transcriptome dynamics during metamorphosis were mapped with SOLiD sequencing of whole larvae and revealed greater than 8,000 differentially expressed (DE) genes significantly (p < 0.05) up- or down-regulated in comparison with the juvenile stage. Candidate transcripts quantified by SOLiD and qPCR analysis were significantly (r = 0.843; p < 0.05) correlated. The majority (98 %) of DE genes during metamorphosis were not TH-responsive. TH-responsive transcripts clustered into 6 groups based on their expression pattern during metamorphosis and the majority of the 145 DE TH-responsive genes were down-regulated. Conclusions A transcriptome resource has been generated for metamorphosing Atlantic halibut and over 8,000 DE transcripts per stage were identified. Unique sets of biological processes and candidate genes were associated with changes in the head, skin and GI-tract during metamorphosis. A small proportion of DE transcripts were TH-responsive, suggesting that they trigger gene networks, signalling cascades and transcription factors, leading to the overt changes in tissue occurring during metamorphosis.
In 1917, Wolfgang Köhler reported some interesting instances of impressive problem-solving behaviour in a number of chimpanzees; a bunch of bananas was placed in a room, high enough to be out of easy reach of the 7 chimps present, and a small wooden box was placed in a far corner. All the chimps tried to obtain the food by jumping, but when it failed, they paced for some time when suddenly one individual ran to the box, pushed it under the bunch, climbed and reached the bananas. Köhler called this behaviour insightful, causing a great controversy. The problem-solving didn’t require trial-error learning or special training, yet the chimp did it; no-one taught the animal to push objects or to get on top of them in order to reach others, yet it did so in one smooth, error free way, straight to the success of eating the banana. A crow can make a hook out of a twig and use it to extract snacks from holes. A chimpanzee can use a box to stand on or a stick to reach a banana. Even a snail can use small stones to shift its own balance in order to turn the right way up (yes, someone made an experiment to see what happens when you put a snail up side down on its shell.) Are these instances demonstrating special cognitive abilities? Why should tool manufacture and use be a good indicator of having them? Just because humans are smart (we tell ourselves) and use tools doesn’t mean that animals who use tools are smart. In fact to say so would be very naïve – if not plain stupid. It’s not until you imagine a world without tools that you realise how dependent we’ve become on them in every aspect of our lives. The influence of technology can be seen everywhere in modern society, but throughout evolution, tool-use has been our characteristic skill. We like using tools; a baby will play with them from a very early age, even if it just means banging one thing against another to make a fun noise. Epstein and colleagues trained 11 adult pigeons; some were trained to just push a small box around their cages towards a green spot, others were trained to climb a fixed box and peck on a picture of a banana (and not fly or jump towards it), still others were taught separately both of the actions. In their experiment, they placed a picture of a bout of reach, and a box away from it, than put a bird into the cage and observed and filmed its actions. First three birds, all of which has been trained in both actions separately, behaved very similarly: each subject was at first “confused” –looked around, gazed back and forth at banana and box, but after a while and rather suddenly each one would go to the box and start pushing it towards the banana, then on reaching the right spot, climb the box and peck the picture. The birds that were taught only one part of the solution never volunteered the whole sequence, nor did the birds that were taught both actions but weren’t trained in pushing box in one direction – they pushed the box aimlessly for 14 minutes at a time without stopping. They seemed quite happy with their lot. Nevertheless, viewers of the resulting video were impressed and astounded by the pigeons’ apparent problem-solving abilities. What can we conclude then? Epstein thought his study showed how easy it was to read too much into simple algorithms of behaviour. Humans are prone to project our own emotions and thoughts onto other creatures which show a similar behaviour pattern to our own, ascribing insight, logic, and reasoning to simple actions which may be nothing of the sort. The idea of ‘insight’ and any other special abilities could no longer be reliably derived from tool-related behaviour. Imagine getting up in the morning and not using a single tool all day long. No spoon or even a bowl for your cereal. No coffee from a machine on the way to lectures, no pen and paper for your notes. No phone calls, no iPod, no internet. Just nothing. Other experiments include chimps using a series of gradually longer sticks to reach for other sticks, the final one being of the correct length to reach a reward. Again, no trial or error learning was present: the chimp simply sat for a while, contemplated, and then solved the problem smoothly and with minimal error. Insightful indeed. But surely such flashes are only present in primates? Not true. Almost 70 years latter, a group of psychologists from Harvard University decided to have a closer look at this “special ability” – with pigeons. It’s something we take pride in, imagining it requires a lot of intelligence and understanding, as something that sets us apart from other animals, something that helped us survive and become such a dominant species. Being an extremely self-centred species, therefore, we find animals using tools fascinating. We’ve always thought that being able to use tools is a sign of some special ability, a human-like intelligence or logic. But is it? Tool-use in animals is often equated with intelligence. But Maja Choma wonders that if even pigeons can learn to use them, what does it say about our high opinion of ourselves? “Tool use is the external employment of an unattached environmental object to alter more efficiently the form, position or condition of another object, organism or the user itself when the user holds or carries the tool during or just prior to use and is responsible for the proper and effective orientation of the tool” (p10 Animal tool behavior by B. Beck. (1980) But what does that say about ourselves and our infinitely complex tools? Do we really have flashes of insight, or are we just enacting aspects of conditioned behaviour in what appears to be a complicated and sophisticated way? Or maybe, just maybe, we aren’t as clever as we think….
Have you ever scaled a 20-foot tree, hung off the side of a skyscraper, been 700 meters underground, or labored on a ship for 36 hours straight? How about run diagnostics on a 15-foot electricity pole, taken pipeline readings in zero-degree weather, or checked refinery equipment in a thunderstorm?It’s hard to imagine that this is a normal day of work for some people….and it’s for this reason that Dell is excited to celebrate them by sharing the Top 20 Most Rugged Jobs in America.From police officer, to commercial fishing specialist, to oil & gas engineer, and lumberjack, the people who hold these rugged jobs encounter the most extreme physical and environmental elements — all in a day’s work.Dell’s Rugged testing lab team know these conditions almost as intimately as the job holders themselves because they are in charge of taking Dell Rugged Devices off-road and into the field with the workers who rely on them to get the most rugged jobs done. Anthony Bundrant, head of the Dell Rugged Labs testing facility works with his team to durability test these specialty devices to withstand:Temperatures hot enough to fry an egg and cold enough to freeze an ice cubeStormy winds up to 70 miles per hour and nearly 6 inches of rain per hour40 mile-per-hour sandstormsDell’s specialty Rugged laptops and tablets are purpose-built, designed and tested to the point of failure. They can withstand the rigor of the most extreme environments and harshest temperatures. Dell’s Rugged Lab tests each system to meet or exceed industry standards to set the durability and performance bar higher.We work closely with law enforcement, the military and many other private sector industries like oil & gas and manufacturing, which all require durable, high performance equipment that can take a spill in the field and keep going. Our Rugged laptops and tablets are built to survive the rigors of the real world — especially in challenging and unpredictable environments, rain or shine.Do you have what it takes to work some of the most rugged jobs in America? Each job on the Top 20 list was scored against three key factors, including physical labor, injury risk, and environmental exposure. Check out the list below to see which careers made the grade! Operating Thermal Range: -20F to 145F (Rugged Extreme Notebooks & Tablet). Based on independent 3rd party testing IP-65 rated for maximum protection against water, dust, and dirt ingress (Rugged Extreme Notebooks & Tablet). Based on independent 3rd party testing.
8 Croft Court, Tugun. 8 Croft Court, Tugun.FIRST home buyers and retirees have snapped up almost half of a boutique Tugun townhouse development.The development at 8 Croft Court includes 25 two-storey three-bedroom townhouses.McGrath — Coolangatta/ Tweed Heads agents Chris and Kelly Holt are marketing the development and said 12 had already sold.“It’s been combination of first home buyers and a few retirees as they want something new,” Mr holt said.More from news02:37Purchasers snap up every residence in the $40 million Siarn Palm Beach North11 hours ago02:37International architect Desmond Brooks selling luxury beach villa1 day ago“There’s limited opportunity for new stock in that area.”Prices range from $540,000 to $590,000.Buyers have a choice of two layouts with high ceilings, open plan living areas and entertaining terraces.A display will open on site in April and the development is expected to be complete by October. 8 Croft Court, Tugun.
Offshore driller Ensco has said it has resolved its issues with Petrobras and is now back on track to potentially secure more work with the Brazilian oil giant.Illustration only: An Ensco drillship/ Source: Wikimedia“Petrobras and Ensco announce today that they have agreed to a settlement of all claims relating to the ENSCO DS-5 drilling services agreement,” Ensco said.Petrobras in January 2016 cancelled a drilling contract with Ensco for the drillship DS-5 over corruption charges.The drillship had been hired by Petrobras from Pride International, a company that Ensco took over in 2011.In its cancellation notice in January 2016, Petrobras claimed there were irregularities with respect to the contracting of drillship DS-5 prior to Ensco’s acquisition in 2011.The alleged irregularities purportedly involved a former third-party marketing consultant of Pride to provide services in connection with the DS-5 drilling services contract.Ensco DS-5 / Data from Bassoe AnalyticsAt the time Ensco said there was no evidence that “Pride, the Company or any current or former employees were aware of or involved in any wrongdoing.”Petrobras had alleged that Pride had knowledge that the shipbuilder of DS-5 made improper payments to the former third-party marketing consultant who then shared the improper payments with former employees of Petrobras and that Pride may have assisted in or facilitated these improper payments.In a statement on Thursday, Ensco said the terms of the agreement were confidential, adding that “no payments will be made by either party in connection with this settlement.”It added: “The parties also agreed to normalize business relations. As a result, the agreement provides for Ensco’s participation in current and future Petrobras tenders on the same basis as all other companies invited to these tenders.”As for the drillship behind the now resolved spat, Bassoe Analytics data shows the rig has been cold-stacked in Spain.Offshore Energy Today Staff
Jean de Dieu Moukagni Iwangou, a leader of the opposition Union of the Gabonese People (UPG) has declined to take up the cabinet position offered to him by President Ali Bongo as part of his cabinet reshuffle.Ali Bongo appointed Iwangou to take charge of the Ministry of Agriculture but the opposition leader declined, undermining the president’s attempt to create a united government ahead of Gabon,s polls slated for next year.The cabinet reshuffle expanded the cabinet slots to 41 from 34, a move that is seen to have been an attempt to silence the government’s critics who say that Bongo’s family has excessive control of the oil-rich central African authority.Iwangou declined the post at a press conference on Saturday saying that the decline was a call for unity amongst Ganon’s people who are impatient for change.Iwangou has been a very vocal figure in the opposition and is the president of the Opposition Front for Change, a coalition by the country’s opposition, dedicated to ending the ruling Gabonese Democratic Party’s 47 years in power.Another opposition figure, Jean-Robert Endamane also declined to take up his post as Minister for Town Planning and Housing, saying he was never consulted about the appointment.
Promoted Content2020 Tattoo Trends: Here’s What You’ll See This Year6 Incredibly Strange Facts About Hurricanes7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend BetterLaugh, Cry, Or Just Relax With The Best Series Streaming On HBOBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For ThemCelebrities Showing Support For George Floyd Protests10 Phones That Can Work For Weeks Without Recharging5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks10 Legendary Historical Movies You Should SeeAll Who Were Alive In The 1980’s Will Get Shivers When See This5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks10 Most Praised Historical Movies Loading… European champions Liverpool have struck a new multi-year kit deal with Nike, the club have announced. The runaway Premier League leaders will wear Nike from June 2020 after five years with New Balance. “As a brand, Nike reflects our ambitions for growth, and we look forward to working with them to bring fans new and exciting products.” The new partnership will begin on June 1. Read Also: Manchester United to Solskjaer: Your job is safe Bert Hoyt, vice-president and general manager of Nike Europe, Middle East and Africa, said: “Liverpool Football Club has such a proud heritage and strong identity. “The partnership with Liverpool FC underscores our leadership in global football and with the club’s passionate worldwide fanbase and strong legacy of success, they have a very bright future ahead. “We look forward to partnering with them to serve players and supporters with Nike innovation and design.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Nike will supply playing, training and travel wear for Liverpool’s men’s, women’s and academy teams and the coaching and Liverpool FC Foundation staff. The Reds’ managing director and chief commercial officer Billy Hogan said: “Our iconic kit is a key part of our history and identity. “We welcome Nike into the LFC family as our new official kit supplier and expect them to be an incredible partner for the club, both at home and globally as we continue to expand our fanbase.Advertisement
Stevan Jovetic came close to bagging an equaliser for City shortly afterwards as he hit the side netting and j ust over 10 minutes later Dundee doubled their lead as one of three trialists for the home side, Luka Tankulic, sent the ball home via a hefty deflection from the unlucky Boyata. Only Callabero and Wales midfielder Emyr Huws remained on the pitch for City after the break as Pellegrini made wholesale changes, but – apart from a half-chance from Alvaro Negredo and a Samir Nasri effort – the Premier League big guns struggled to create any real chances. Barclays Premier League champions Manchester City suffered a 2-0 friendly defeat to Dundee at Dens Park in their opening pre-season match on Sunday afternoon. Manuel Pellegrini named new signing Willy Caballero in goal in the friendly clash against the Scottish side, while new midfield signing Fernando started, but City were already two down before Pellegrini made nine changes at half-time. The home side took the lead when Gary Harkins was awarded a spot-kick after he was brought down in the penalty box by Dedryck Boyata. The 29-year-old midfielder, who returned to Dundee for the third time this summer, saw his penalty saved by new Argentinian stopper Caballero before hitting home the rebound after 26 minutes. Press Association
Published on March 19, 2016 at 10:09 pm Contact Matt: [email protected] | @matt_schneidman Simpson’s first feeling when his parents separated was excitement.He didn’t fully understand the concept of divorce, but knew he was moving from Mississippi to Alaska with his mother and the prospect enticed him. He lived there from first to fifth grade and played a variety of sports while being thrust into an environment far from what he was accustomed to in his home state of Mississippi. “It was cold,” he said. “Cold as hell.”Simpson grew to understand the stigma surrounding divorce as he aged, but his parents’ working relationship that remains to this day watered down the fact that they lived more than half a country apart.“I know some divorces go real bad,” he said. “They handled it well, so I think it helped me cope with it better.”He returned to Mississippi to live with his father in sixth grade, but there was hardly any glamour that came with the start of his youth basketball career in the south.Ed Simpson Sr. was his son’s first AAU coach and didn’t even start him. He said his son was too lazy and made him prove his worth for a starting spot that he eventually earned when he was 14. On his first AAU team not coached by his father, Simpson was told he needed to be tougher and more skilled. His father took him off the team since the money and travel wasn’t worth the criticism and time his son spent on the bench.When Simpson Sr. was 17, he enrolled in the Air Force and later played on the academy’s basketball team. In what was then a tournament between the armed forces, Air Force was considered physically inferior to the Navy and Marines.Before each game, Simpson Sr. took the insults. He heard the critics. He shouldered the doubt, the same kind that surrounded Middle Tennessee State before it shocked the college basketball world on Friday.“‘Oh man you guys are soft, y’all ain’t battle ready and we gon’ beat y’all down when we get out here,” he’d hear. “They were always talking about how soft the Air Force was, and that just gave me the toughness and no-excuse attitude when it came to stepping out on the floor.”Simpson has the same demeanor now and he credits that to his father, but he’s not on the floor, at least not walking on two legs with a basketball in his hand. He’s rolling on it with his knee scooter during practices, his right leg propped up on a cushioned surface.After Simpson’s injury, Davis ended practice. The team returned to its hotel, where they all received an article from the head coach about former Louisville guard Kevin Ware and his far more severe injury. Ware broke his leg in the 2013 NCAA Tournament against Duke but returned just over seven months after the gruesome snap. If he could come back, so could Simpson.On MTSU’s current seven-game winning streak that has it on the brink of duplicating history, the Blue Raiders are fueled by Simpson’s resilience. It’s been the source of inspiration throughout a memorable postseason despite Simpson being a lesser-heralded player who averages five points and 2.6 rebounds on an even lesser-heralded team.It can be attributed in part to how he rubs off on others now, and how he has since high school. Simpson was the kid everyone envied. He was the star for St. Martin (Mississippi) High School on the court. The student body bowed down to him when his name was announced before games and they made signs with his name on them.“Every girl wanted to date him, every boy wanted to be his friend,” St. Martin head coach Charlie Pavlus said. “He was able to walk that straight line.”Simpson can’t even walk now, let alone in a straight line, but he hasn’t changed. After the Blue Raiders upset Michigan State, Simpson texted Pavlus, “The smell of upset is in the air coach! I’m just in awe right now.”The next text read, “To be honest I just keep thinking ‘Is this really happening’ haha felt like a dream coach.”Simpson didn’t consider reality when he hit the floor 10 days ago either. He just thought he sprained his ankle.But he wasn’t fazed by something that could’ve torn him apart — not when his ankle took a shape ankles aren’t supposed to, not when his mom moved out of the continental United States and not when his own father benched him.He’ll be on the sideline during Sunday’s game, but this time he has to be there. He might roll around on his scooter during warmups, flashing the smile that makes his teammates liken him to a little kid. He won’t look like a player taking a back seat in the next possible Cinderella story, but he’s just going along for the ride.“You go down, but things happen for a reason,” Simpson said. “To say that they’re playing for me, it means I really absolutely mean something to this team…“It means the most to me.” Comments ST. LOUIS – Aldonis Foote turned from his team and walked toward the bleachers inside the Birmingham-Jefferson Convention Complex, his stomach churning as he fought the urge to puke.On March 9, the Blue Raiders were only 30 minutes into their final practice before the Conference USA tournament. Seconds prior, sophomore Ed Simpson contested Foote’s layup like he would during any drill. This time, Simpson’s left foot planted on the court while his right got tangled with Foote’s leg. Simpson hit the floor. His right ankle twisted. He screamed.To Foote, whose eyes weren’t on the fall, it sounded like a yell from teammate Perrin Buford. When he turned around, he saw the scream was coming from someone else. He saw the facial expressions. He saw an ankle completely displaced.Head coach Kermit Davis left the gym. He couldn’t bear to watch and had to gather himself. The question racing through his head: “What are we going to do with this team?” When he walked back in, the entire team surrounded Simpson on the floor while praying, a deafening silence permeating throughout the gym.“At first I didn’t feel it, I didn’t feel the break or anything,” Simpson said Saturday. “…I was laying on the ground, just put my head down and started praying.”AdvertisementThis is placeholder textOn Friday afternoon, 15th-seeded Middle Tennessee State (25-9, 13-5 Conference USA) pulled off arguably the biggest upset in NCAA Tournament history with a 90-81 win over second-seeded Michigan State at the Scottrade Center. Simpson, who Foote declared both the team’s second-best defender and 3-point shooter, watched from the sideline. It’s the same spot he’ll take in the Blue Raiders’ matchup against 10th-seeded Syracuse (20-13, 9-9 Atlantic Coast) on Sunday evening with a spot in the Sweet Sixteen on the line and a chance for MTSU to become the second-ever 15-seed to reach that round.But for Simpson, who sat on a black cushioned table with his right leg engulfed in a beige cast while grinning ear-to-ear, the outlook hasn’t been grim in the 10 days since he fractured his right ankle in the only severe injury of his career. The thick skin he’s developed in his life — from navigating his parents’ divorce and being molded into a resilient basketball player by a military father — has helped him cope. He’ll miss several months of basketball and possibly being a tangible part of history, but he’s become the inspiration for a team trying to be the next Cinderella of the NCAA Tournament.“We can’t use that to bring us down,” Foote said of Simpson’s injury. “We have to use that as motivation.”MORE COVERAGE:Meet MTSU: Giddy Potts and the making of the nation’s best 3-point shooterMeet MTSU: The story behind each of the Blue Raiders’ 6 contributing transfersSyracuse may face more defenses against MTSU than it has in a single game all season Facebook Twitter Google+
Their time in Madison might be winding down, but that doesn’t mean the nine seniors on the Wisconsin men’s hockey team are anywhere near done. With a strong contribution from several key members of the senior class, the Badgers managed to separate from Michigan State Friday night at the Kohl Center on the way to a 5-2 win.Right in the thick of things for No. 8 Wisconsin (18-9-2 overall, 9-5-1-0 Big Ten with 28 points) was senior winger Michael Mersch who tallied to critical first period goals to help the Badgers crawl out of an early 1-0 hole.The Spartans (9-14-7, 3-6-6-4 with 19 points) grabbed that surprising lead in the game 6 minutes, 52 seconds in off a shorthanded goal with Wisconsin on its first power play of the game. After the Badgers turned the puck over in the offensive zone, MSU picked up the loose biscuit along the near side boards and broke out of its own zone on an odd-man rush. Lee Reimer jetted over the blue line and toward the Badgers’ cage and elected to shoot on the two-on-one, sneaking the puck past Wisconsin goaltender Joel Rumpel (24 saves).But after yielding that shorthanded goal on their first try on the power play, the Badgers struck back to tie the game on their second chance on the man advantage just two minutes and 22 seconds later. With some extended pressure in the offensive zone, Wisconsin defenseman Jake McCabe threaded a pass to Nic Kerdiles in the right circle. Kerdiles then smacked a feed into the low slot to Mersch, and he redirected the puck past Spartan goaltender Jake Hildebrand, who had 23 saves in the game.The game went into the second period tied at one, but four minutes into the second frame with Wisconsin back on the power play, Mersch found himself with another prime scoring opportunity. Once again it was the same three players combining for the goal as McCabe got the puck to Kerdiles who fired off a shot from the right circle. Mersch collected the rebound point-blank on the right side and, while falling down, mustered a shot on net that squibbed between the legs of Hildebrand.“The first one was a really nice play and tip and the other one was a great effort. Michael has a propensity to do those things and he did it both ways on a nice one and a sloppy one,” Wisconsin head coach Mike Eaves said of Mersch after the game.However, Wisconsin still clung to that 2-1 lead late in the second period when the turning point of the game came courtesy of senior Mark Zengerle. With under 10 seconds left in the period, defenseman Kevin Schulze sauced a pass from the right wing boards all the way across to Zengerle who was ready and waiting. From the bottom of the left faceoff circle Zengerle ripped a wrister that zipped past Hildebrand top shelf to boost the lead to 3-1, a momentous goal heading into the final period.“To get a goal to get the two goal lead at the end of the period is big time,” Zengerle said. “On the other side of things, you get that goal against you it takes a big blow out of you. But as far as the goal goes it was just an unbelievable pass by Kevin [Schulze]. I had the whole net [to shoot at].”That crucial goal was all Wisconsin would end up needing, although Brad Navin would tack on a fourth goal 4:39 into the final period. Michigan State cut the lead to 4-2 with 2:08 remaining in the game, but when MSU pulled Hildebrand on the ensuing sequence, Zengerle worked the puck out of the zone to Mersch who set up Kerdiles for the final score on the empty net to seal the game. It was Zengerle’s first assist in his last eight games, the longest he has gone in his career without a helper as the leading assist-getter in the Mike Eaves’ coaching era.With the win, Wisconsin improved to 16-2-1 at the Kohl Center this year, tied for the most home wins ever in one season with the 1999-2000 Badgers’ squad.Mersch, Zengerle and the other seven seniors have the chance to set a new record for wins at home Saturday afternoon in what will be their final home game.“The days are dwindling here, so I think you have a little extra fire in you,” Zengerle said.