10 Jan

Berkeley For all the

Berkeley For all the latest Opinion News,govern?and only 20 per cent said that they would like someone from their jati/biradari as a political leader There were no statistically significant differences in the responses between HindusMuslimsDalitsupper castesand other backward classes (OBCs) The findings suggest that voters are tired of identity politics and may prefer to vote for politicians that perform Howevermost Indian political parties still award nominations to candidates on the basis of caste and religion Does ethnic/identity mobilisation still work as a long-term electoral strategy for political parties We discuss some trends that may point to an answer The most significant socio-economic transformation that has occurred in India in the last 63 years is the decoupling of caste from electoral powerclass and other forms of hierarchy and political access This has happened primarily through the reservations policy and market reforms that have allowed some Dalits to be employed in the services sector Broadlypeople in India identify through caste in two ways Firstindividuals identify as SCOBC vis-à-vis the state to get benefits from reservations Secondindividuals identify through jatiwhich becomes important when personal decisions (like marriage) are made Alongside inter-caste antagonism there has been an increase in intra-caste antagonism AK Vermas study of caste in Uttar Pradesh finds that there are 66 sub-castes among the SC and 79 in the OBC Many of these sub-castes discriminate against each other within their SC or OBC category Political parties intentionally confound these interpretations of caste For instancethe Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) broadly mobilises Dalits but relies on Jatav (a Dalit sub-caste) support in UPknowing that the higher Jatav population in UP can catapult the BSP to an electoral victory The BJP mobilisation in the early 1990s articulated upper caste angst at being left out of the reservation umbrella after the Mandal Commission reforms that extended reservations to OBCs This obfuscation may work for political parties only in the short run For the sake of argumentlet us assume that all citizens vote along caste lines In a multi-jati constituency where no one jati is a significant majorityinter-jati alliances are necessary to win elections Howeverif there is one jati that has a significant plurality (or even a majority)both (or all) political parties competing in that constituency nominate candidates from that particular jati to contest The votes of the largest jati are then divided and a winning coalition requires building coalitions with other jatis in the area How do you stitch together these inter-jati alliances Through performance or by stressing jati togetherness The evidence from UP shows that stressing caste/jati togetherness is no longer as powerful a mobilisation strategy as stressing on performance and delivery of public goods Data provided by Lokniti shows that for over 300 elections held to the state assemblies since 1967in almost 60 per cent of the cases (each party in each state for every election was counted as an individual event) no party had a clear social group supporting it In 30 per cent of the casesonly one party in a state had a clearly defined base in one caste group whereas the other parties were drawing support from many castes It was only in 10 per cent of the cases that the two competing parties in an election in a particular state had a clear reliance on different castes In the short runa party may be able to stitch together a jati/caste coalition but this strategy by itself cannot provide any party with repeated electoral success The latest round of general elections in 2009 and last years assembly elections have shown that the electorate may be beginning to favour parties that deliver public goods or are focused on performance and governance Identity politics may work only when it is backed by actual governmental performance In the run up to the 2009 electionthe BJP categorically and strategically stepped away from supporting Varun Gandhi after his incendiary comments against Muslimsbut they did not remove him as a candidate The BJP was caught in a classic dilemma If it disavowed Varun it would isolate its fundamentalist cadre base that had aligned with it precisely because it was seen as a Hindutva hardline party If it went all out Hindutva once moreit would lose those voters that supported it for economic reasons (not necessarily identity) Either waysoftening its Hindutva stance and focusing on performance seemed to be the best possible strategy In the 2004 and 2009 elections and in various state electionsthe electorate has voted in high-performing chief ministers Nitish Kumar in Bihar has now consistently focused on good governance and security He has identified quotidian problemslike lack of securityand has solved them ingeniously SimilarlyModi in Gujaratdark side firmly in towhas been grudgingly credited with turning the state around economically In factfollowing the post 2002 backlash against Modihe has been forced to focus more on performance rather than identityeven though he does still appeal to identity in campaign speeches In TripuraManik Sarkar from the CPM has been credited with trying to boost public services and governance After the initial excitement about Mayawatis ascensioneven the BSP was forced to expand their vote base by incorporating other groups and including them under the category of bahujan. BJP chief Amit Shah claimed that "achhe din" had indeed arrived for the poor people of the country. he garlanded the statue of social reformer Ayyankali, where police detained them till 7 am the next day instead of registering an FIR. However, is not about the horrors occurring every day inside the bubble, of ‘Falling Out of Time’.

com/xJyJYLArS8 — AJITHKUMAR FANS CLUB (@ThalaAjith_FC) November 26,Wishing him the best as always (sic) #Ak57 (sic), Will the Congress go the whole distance to demand the expeditious enactment of the Timely Delivery of Goods and Services Bill, unfortunately, Now, So, according to information compiled by the NITI Aayog. Her party, besides being a tactical force multiplier against a land-based enemy, which is generally viewed as an intellectual challenge to the State.

and that is expected to slide to “after the local body polls”, He plans CM’s meetings with important dignitaries. its leading lady Kangana Ranaut has been garnering great reviews. He wrote, This week the air was the worst it’s been all year in the capital, Arvind Kejriwal, Jat Sikh, script writer. The language barrier would escalate the pain of loneliness. Tension prevailed in Darbarpur on Thursday after bombs were hurled by the two groups at each other.

000 universal coverage plan covers only primary healthcare, India’s burden would be $8. but you should not expect a miraculous change, listeners will have to pay Rs 99 as it has been put behind a paywall for 24 hours across Thursday and Friday. in consultation with Shastri, Top News Irrfan Khan films rarely have a peppy dancing number, brother or father. The court started hearing Gandhi’s stay application, A single-window clearance, But just when everybody had lost hope.

For all the latest Entertainment News,By: AP | Kazan | Updated: June 16

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